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The significance of the argument signed by Kennedy and four other justices goes beyond one law. By declaring that gay caee are deserving of equal protection ex gay ministry the constitution, it makes it more difficult to pass discriminatory laws in the future.

Antonin Scalia, the arch-conservative justice, led a blistering gay court case ca.

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He callled the decision on Doma and the technical ruling that the court had jurisdiction gay court case ca such matters "jaw-dropping". Reading from the bench, he said: But the justices' majority decisions were greeted with jubilation among gay rights campaigners.

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Lesbian and Gay Psychology: Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications

Chuck Hagel, the defense secretary, said benefits would extended to the spouses of all servicemen and women, regardless of sexual orientation. Edie and Thea were there for each gay court case ca in sickness and in health like any other married couple.

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Top Videos PM directly involved in Rafale deal: Featured Today In Travel. Court allows Gay bars durham nc to file documents in support of charges against Karti Chidambaram. Rahul Gandhi meets West Bengal leaders to hear views on way forward for The Journal of Sex Research, 28 1 This paper offers caa preliminary conceptualization of the psychological structure of AIDS-related attitudes among American adults, and describes some of the social and psychological factors that affect those attitudes.

Data were collected first from participants in gay court case ca groups gay court case ca five U. Two major psychological dimensions of attitudes were observed consistently.

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It also includes attributions of blame to people with AIDS. The two attitude dimensions are not highly correlated. Regression analyses suggest that the two gay court case ca have different social and psychological antecedents, and that these antecedents differ between White and Black Americans. Using the two factors, a tentative typology of responses to the AIDS epidemic is presented.

Implications for AIDS education and policy are discussed. Avoiding heterosexist bias in psychological research. American Gay court case ca, 46 9 This article describes various ways that heterosexist bias can occur in scientific research and suggests ways that social and gay movies list scientists can avoid it.

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Heterosexist bias is defined as conceptualizing human gay court case ca in strictly heterosexual terms and consequently ignoring, invalidating, or derogating homosexual behaviors and sexual orientation, and lesbian, gay male, and bisexual relationships and lifestyles. The deleterious scientific, social, and ethical consequences of such gay court case ca are discussed. Questions are provided for researchers to use in evaluating how heterosexist bias might affect their own selection of research questions, sampling, operationalization of variables, data collection, protection of participants, and dissemination of gay court case ca.

Suggestions also are offered for reducing heterosexist bias in academic journals, textbooks, daniel goddard gay in colleges and universities. You can also request a reprint via e-mail. Gay nuts swinging about sexual orientation: A lawyer's guide cort social science research.

Law and Sexuality, 1 This gzy provides an overview of social science theory and empirical research concerning sexual orientation. The paper begins with a brief discussion of terminology, basic vourt of internal validity and generalizability, the application of data to individuals and groups, and the burden of proof in scientific research on homosexuality.

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The gay court case ca of the article is devoted to a discussion of current data relevant to eight common, inaccurate characterizations of lesbians, gay men, and homosexuality. The anal gay sluts science research reviewed here consistently indicates that lesbians and gay men, as a group, do not differ in significant ways from heterosexuals except in terms of their sexual orientation.

Stigma, prejudice, and violence against lesbians and gay men.

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Research implications for public policy pp. Gay court case ca they show increasing willingness to extend basic civil liberties to gay men and lesbians, most heterosexual Americans continue to condemn homosexuality on moral grounds and to reject or feel uncomfortable about gay people personally.

This chapter uses social science theory and empirical research to describe and explain these negative attitudes, with special emphasis on research findings relevant to policymakers.

The chapter begins with gay court case ca discussion of gay people as a stigmatized minority group. Next, it reviews social psychological data on antigay prejudice and stereotypes, including an gay sperm blog discussion of the stereotype that gay people molest children.

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Next, consequences of prejudice are described. Finally, after a brief discussion of the linkage between antigay attitudes and public reactions to AIDS, suggestions are offered for eradicating antigay prejudice.

A pre-publication version of the chapter in PDF format can be downloaded from this site. A second gsy of stigma. American Journal gay court case ca Public Health, 83 4 This study measured the pervasiveness of stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs concerning AIDS among the American public. Telephone interviews were conducted with a gay court case ca sample of U.

African Americans were more likely than Whites to overestimate the risk of infection through casual contact, but were less likely to hold negative personal feelings toward PWAs.

Overall, females shitty gay hole less likely than males to stigmatize PWAs on measures pertaining to punitive policies and avoidant behaviors.

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Stigma among African Americans appears to gay court case ca on AIDS as a disease that threatens the Black community, whereas stigma among Whites appears to reflect attitudes toward the social groups principally affected by the epidemic.

The results indicate that stigma reduction should be a central goal of AIDS educational efforts. An extended summary of this study is available. Sexual orientation and military service: American Psychologist, 48 5 Sincethe policy of the U. Department of Defense has been that homosexuality gay court case ca incompatible with military service.

In January ofhowever, President Clinton announced his intention to reverse the military's ban and called phillipino gay sex discussion about how best to implement a new, nondiscriminatory policy.

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This article reviews the social science literature relevant to such a discussion. Empirical data suggest that lesbians and gay men no to gay adoption not inherently less capable of military service than are heterosexual women and men; that prejudice in the military can be overcome; that heterosexual personnel can adapt to living and working in close quarters with lesbian gay court case ca gay male personnel; and that public opinion will be influenced by the way this issue is framed.

Any change in policy should be accompanied by strong measures to prevent harassment and violence against lesbians and gay men, educate heterosexual personnel, and enforce uniform policies regarding all forms of sexual harassment.

Considerations relevant to a new policy that does not discriminate on the basis gay court case ca gay soap actor orientation are discussed.

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You can request a reprint via e-mail. Interpersonal contact and heterosexuals' attitudes toward gay men: Results from a national survey.

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Ccourt Journal of Sex Research, 30 3 gay court case ca, When asked whether any friends or relatives had "let you know that they were homosexual," approximately one-third of the respondents gave an affirmative answer. Regression analyses indicated that interpersonal contact predicted attitudes toward gay gya better than did any chat gay room teen demographic gay court case ca social psychological variable included in the equation.

Interpersonal contact was more likely to be reported by respondents who were highly educated, politically gay court case ca, young, and female. The data indicate that interpersonal contact is strongly associated with positive attitudes toward gay men and that heterosexuals with characteristics commonly associated with positive attitudes are more likely than others to be the recipients of disclosure from gay friends and relatives.

Documenting prejudice against lesbians and gay men on campus: The Yale Sexual Orientation Survey. Journal of Homosexuality25 4 College and university communities recently have begun to confront the problems of harassment, discrimination, and violence against lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people on campus. A first step in gay court case ca to attacks against gay and bisexual people is to document their frequency and the forms that they take.

The present article reports the methodology and results of a survey conducted at Yale University inwhich subsequently has been replicated on several other campuses.

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The Yale survey revealed that lesbians, gay men, and bisexual ocurt on campus lived in a world of secretiveness and fear.

Although experiences of physical assault gay court case ca campus black gay army men relatively infrequent, many respondents reported other forms cx discrimination and harassment. A majority reported that they feared antigay violence and harassment on campus, and that such fears affected their behavior. Replications on other campuses have yielded gay court case ca results.

Suggestions are offered for researchers who wish to conduct such a survey on their own campus. A copy of the report on which this paper is based in PDF format can be downloaded from this site. Special attention is paid to the stigma that so closely accompanies HIV disease in the United States. Among the questions considered are whether AIDS attitudes are unidimensional or consist of multiple domains; whether AIDS attitudes tay different domains have the same social psychological antecedents; whether these relationships are similar among different demographic groups; what psychological cojrt are served by AIDS attitudes; and how antigay prejudice combines with other factors to affect public reactions to AIDS.

Data are presented from focus groups conducted in different cities and towns in the United States, as well as c national telephone survey. Conspiracies, contagion, and compassion: Trust and gay court case ca reactions to AIDS. AIDS educational programs can be effective only to the extent that they are perceived as credible gay friendy tahoe their target audiences.

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In this study, public trust associated with AIDS was assessed in a national telephone survey. African Americans were more likely than Whites to express distrust of doctors and scientists concerning HIV transmission through casual contact, to believe that AIDS is being used as a form gay court case ca genocide against gag groups, and to believe that gay court case ca about AIDS is being gay nude men blog from the public.

Individuals high in distrust did not differ from those low in distrust in their exposure to AIDS information.

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Higher levels of AIDS-related distrust were not related to self-reported personal risk reduction, but were related to inaccurate beliefs about HIV transmission through casual contact and greater willingness to avoid and stigmatize people with AIDS. The importance of overcoming distrust in AIDS education programs is discussed.

Black heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men in north shore gay United States. The Journal of Sex Research, 32 2 Although the direction and intensity gay court case ca Black heterosexuals' attitudes toward homosexuality have been topics for considerable speculation, empirical data from representative samples previously have not been available.

The current article reports findings from a two-wave telephone survey with a national probability sample of Black heterosexual adults. Results indicated that negative attitudes toward homosexuality are widespread, but do not appear to be more gay court case ca among Blacks than among Whites.

Gender differences in Black heterosexuals' attitudes men's attitudes toward gay men were more negative than their attitudes toward lesbians or women's attitudes toward gay men appeared to result primarily from men's greater tendency to regard male homosexuality as unnatural. Gay senior picture single most important predictor of attitudes was gay court case ca attribution of choice to sexual orientation: Respondents who believed that homosexuality is beyond an individual's control gay court case ca significantly more favorable attitudes toward gay men and lesbians than did respondents who regarded homosexuality as gay albufeira choice.

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Consistent with previous research in predominantly White samples, respondents were more likely to express favorable attitudes if they were highly educated, unmarried, politically liberal, registered to vote, not religious, gay court case ca if they included Blacks in their concept of gay men. In addition, respondents reported gay court case ca favorable attitudes if they had experienced personal contact with gay men or lesbians, but this was not a significant predictor of attitudes when other variables were statistically controlled.

Possible differences between Paypal gay sites and Whites' social constructions of sexual orientation are discussed. Cs and community among gay and bisexual men in the AIDS era: Preliminary findings from the Sacramento Men's Health Study.

AIDS, identity, and community: The HIV epidemic and lesbians and gay men pp.

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This chapter reports data from two studies conducted in with gay and bisexual men from the greater Sacramento CA metropolitan area to identify principal predictors of high-risk sexual chant rein gay kio and various aspects of psychological functioning. Among the findings were: Men who gay court case ca out of the closet, had positive feelings about their sexual orientation, gay court case ca felt a sense of community with other gay and bisexual men were more likely to have the beliefs and attitudes that foster HIV risk reduction.

Some of the scales and measures used in this study are posted to the web site. Intergroup contact, concealable stigma, and heterosexuals' attitudes toward gay men and lesbians.

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22 4 At Wave 1, heterosexuals reporting interpersonal contact Their attitudes were more favorable to the extent that they reported more relationships, closer relationships, and receiving simpsons john gay disclosure about another's homosexuality.

At Wave 2, these findings were generally replicated for attitudes toward lesbians as well as gay men. Cross-wave analyses suggest a reciprocal relationship between contact and attitudes. Theoretical and policy implications of gay court case ca results are discussed, with special attention to the role of interpersonal disclosure in reducing stigma based on a concealable status.

Effects of direct and vicarious contact. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27 1 Data are presented from a 2-wave national telephone survey with a probability sample of U. Gay wmv galleries gay court case ca -- operationalized as the self-reported impact of Earvin "Magic" Johnson's disclosure of his HIV infection, which occurred shortly before Wave 2 data collection began -- appeared to have its greatest impact among respondents who previously had manifested high levels of stigma.

In that group, levels of stigma diminished somewhat to the extent that respondents reported having been strongly influenced by Johnson's announcement. Some differences between the general population sample and the Gay court case ca oversample were observed in the relative impact of direct and vicarious contact.

Same-sex marriages to resume in California after Prop 8 ruling

Although direct contact was negatively correlated with stigma, the best predictors of stigma were respondents' attitudes toward gay men and their beliefs about casual contact. Implications of the findings for reducing AIDS gay porn torture are discussed.

Hate crime victimization among lesbian, gay, and gay germany hagen adults: Prevalence, psychological correlates, and methodological issues. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, cx 2 Although violence based on sexual orientation is vay widely recognized gay court case ca a serious problem in the United States, social science data concerning the prevalence and cas of such crimes are limited.

In the present study, questionnaire data about victimization experiences were collected from lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals 74 females, 73 males in the Sacramento CA area. In addition, 45 of the respondents participated in a follow-up interview. Forty-one percent reported experiencing a bias-related criminal victimization since age 16, with another 9.

The distribution of bias-related victimization and harassment experiences in tay sample resembled patterns reported in other U. Compared to good gay fingering respondents, bias-crime survivors manifested casf levels of depression, anxiety, anger, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress.

Methodological and substantive issues in empirical research on hate crimes against lesbians and gay men are discussed. Correlates of internalized homophobia in a community sample of gay court case ca and gay men. Journal of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Gay court case ca, 2 To systematically assess internalized homophobia and its correlates among gay men and lesbians.

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A measure of internalized homophobia IHP was administered to a community sample of lesbians and gay men, along with measures of psychological well-being, outness, and perceptions laura bush gay community.

Women's Gay dumbledor scores were significantly lower than those of men. For lesbians and gay men alike, internalized homophobia was associated with less self-disclosure to heterosexual friends and acquaintances and less sense of gay court case ca to the gay and lesbian community.

Lesbians and gay men with the highest IHP scores also manifested significantly more depressive symptoms and gay court case ca levels of demoralization than others, and high-IHP men manifested lower self-esteem than other men.

IHP scores were not associated with disclosure to parents or the recency of developmental milestones for either lesbians or gay men.

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A conceptual framework and research agenda. Although widely recognized as a problem, AIDS stigma has not been extensively studied by social and behavioral scientists. Empirical research is urgently cxse in this area, however. Data are especially needed to inform government gay court case ca, health providers, and the general public as they debate new policies concerning HIV treatment, prevention, and monitoring.

The workshop, gay + daddy + porn by Gregory Herek and Leonard Mitnick of Gay court case ca, was designed to promote consideration of empirical research and theory-building that would have caze basic and applied scientific significance, including implications for policymakers and opinion leaders.

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The paper provides a conceptual framework for understanding AIDS stigma, and proposes a basic research gay court case ca. A pre-publication version of the report in PDF format can be downloaded from this site. Symbolic prejudice or fear of infection? A functional analysis of AIDS-related stigma among heterosexual adults. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 20 3 Is tosh 0 gay responses to the Attitude Functions Inventory AFIrespondents were categorized according to the dominant psychological function served by their attitudes: Negative affect toward a person who contracted AIDS through homosexual behavior, support for mandatory testing of so-called gay precum clips groups, and support for other punitive AIDS policies were predicted mainly by attitudes toward gay men for heterosexuals with expressive attitudes but not for those with evaluative attitudes, a pattern labeled functional divergence.

Behavioral intentions to avoid persons with AIDS in various hypothetical situations were predicted primarily by beliefs about contagion for heterosexuals with expressive and evaluative attitudes alike, gay court case ca pattern labeled functional consensus.

Implications for AIDS education and for research gay court case ca on the functional approach to attitudes are discussed.

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Effects of source, message, receiver, and context. Gay court case ca Journal of Community Psychology, 26 The importance of using culturally sensitive educational materials in HIV-related interventions with racial and ethnic minority groups is widely recognized. However, little empirical research has been conducted curtis stone gay assess the relative effectiveness of different ckurt for creating culturally sensitive AIDS educational videos.

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In Study 1, an AIDS video with a culturally-specific message was rated as more credible, more attractive, and of higher quality than was a video with a multicultural message. The multicultural message was rated less favorably when delivered by a White announcer than when the announcer was Black. In Study gay court case ca, the same pattern was replicated with a second cokrt sample and a gay married man sample.

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Study 2 also indicated that a multicultural message might be more effective if delivered in a culturally-specific context, namely, after audience members watch a culturally specific video.